Global Goals for Sustainable Development (universities)

On 1 January 2016, the 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development — adopted by world leaders in September 2015 at an historic UN Summit — officially came into force. Over the next fifteen years, with these new Goals that universally apply to all, countries will mobilize efforts to end all forms of poverty, fight inequalities and tackle climate change, while ensuring that no one is left behind.

The SDGs, also known as Global Goals, build on the success of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and aim to go further to end all forms of poverty. The new Goals are unique in that they call for action by all countries, poor, rich and middle-income to promote prosperity while protecting the planet. They recognize that ending poverty must go hand-in-hand with strategies that build economic growth and addresses a range of social needs including education, health, social protection, and job opportunities, while tackling climate change and environmental protection (source: UN.org).

This page has been designed to provide a framework for universities to start to understand how metrics link to specific SDGs with the hope that it will enable universities to connect business strategies and teaching with global priorities. Universities can as such use the SDGs as an overarching framework to shape, steer, communicate and report their strategies, goals and activities. This mapping exercise is the beginning of what we hope to be an ongoing and collaborative process, between sustainability professionals, academics, students and the wider community and the initial mapping was carried out in collaboration with the University of Worcester and University of Michigan, for further details about the project check out this page.

expand_less SDG1: No Poverty (universities)
SDG1: No Poverty (universities)+Image

SDG1: No Poverty (universities)

+Overview

END POVERTY IN ALL ITS FORMS EVERYWHERE

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1.1 By 2030, eradicate extreme poverty for all people everywhere, currently measured as people living on less than $1.25 a day

1.2 By 2030, reduce at least by half the proportion of men, women and children of all ages living in poverty in all its dimensions according to national definitions

1.3 Implement nationally appropriate social protection systems and measures for all, including floors, and by 2030 achieve substantial coverage of the poor and the vulnerable

1.4 By 2030, ensure that all men and women, in particular the poor and the vulnerable, have equal rights to economic resources, as well as access to basic services, ownership and control over land and other forms of property, inheritance, natural resources, appropriate new technology and financial services, including microfinance

1.5 By 2030, build the resilience of the poor and those in vulnerable situations and reduce their exposure and vulnerability to climate-related extreme events and other economic, social and environmental shocks and disasters

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1.a Ensure significant mobilization of resources from a variety of sources, including through enhanced development cooperation, in order to provide adequate and predictable means for developing countries, in particular least developed countries, to implement programs and policies to end poverty in all its dimensions

1.b Create sound policy frameworks at the national, regional and international levels, based on pro-poor and gender-sensitive development strategies, to support accelerated investment in poverty eradication actions

expand_less SDG2: No Hunger (universities)
SDG2: No Hunger (universities)+Image

SDG2: No Hunger (universities)

Sustainability Tracking Assessment Rating System STARS+image
Vegan Dining Option
Research | community
1 1
+Overview

END HUNGER, ACHIEVE FOOD SECURITY AND IMPROVE NUTRITION AND PROMOTE SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE

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2.1 By 2030, end hunger and ensure access by all people, in particular the poor and people in vulnerable situations including infants, to safe, nutritious and sufficient food all year round

2.2 By 2030, end all forms of malnutrition, including achieving by 2025 the internationally agreed targets on stunting and wasting in children under five years of age, and address the nutritional needs of adolescent girls, pregnant and lactating women, and older persons

2.3 By 2030, double the agricultural productivity and the incomes of small-scale food producers, particularly women, indigenous peoples, family farmers, pastoralists and fishers, including through secure and equal access to land, other productive resources and inputs, knowledge, financial services, markets, and opportunities for value addition and non-farm employment

2.4 By 2030, ensure sustainable food production systems and implement resilient agricultural practices that increase productivity and production, that help maintain ecosystems, that strengthen capacity for adaptation to climate change, extreme weather, drought, flooding and other disasters, and that progressively improve land and soil quality

2.5 By 2020, maintain genetic diversity of seeds, cultivated plants, farmed and domesticated animals and their related wild species, including through soundly managed and diversified seed and plant banks at national, regional and international levels, and ensure access to and fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising from the utilization of genetic resources and associated traditional knowledge as internationally agreed

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2.a. Increase investment, including through enhanced international cooperation, in rural infrastructure, agricultural research and extension services, technology development, and plant and livestock gene banks to enhance agricultural productive capacity in developing countries, in particular in least developed countries

2.b. Correct and prevent trade restrictions and distortions in world agricultural markets including by the parallel elimination of all forms of agricultural export subsidies and all export measures with equivalent effect, in accordance with the mandate of the Doha Development Round

2.c. Adopt measures to ensure the proper functioning of food commodity markets and their derivatives, and facilitate timely access to market information, including on food reserves, in order to help limit extreme food price volatility

expand_less SDG3: Good Health and Well-being (universities)
SDG3: Good Health and Well-being (universities)+Image

SDG3: Good Health and Well-being (universities)

+Overview

ENSURE HEALTHY LIVES AND PROMOTE WELL-BEING FOR ALL AT ALL AGES

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3.1 By 2030, reduce the global maternal mortality ratio to less than 70 per 100,000 live births

3.2 By 2030, end preventable deaths of newborns and under-five children

3.3 By 2030, end the epidemics of AIDS, tuberculosis, malaria, and neglected tropical diseases and combat hepatitis, water-borne diseases, and other communicable diseases

3.4 By 2030, reduce by one-third pre-mature mortality from non-communicable diseases (NCDs) through prevention and treatment, and promote mental health and wellbeing

3.5 Strengthen prevention and treatment of substance abuse, including narcotic drug abuse and harmful use of alcohol

3.6 By 2020, halve global deaths and injuries from road traffic accidents

3.7 By 2030, ensure universal access to sexual and reproductive health care services, including for family planning, information and education, and the integration of reproductive health into national strategies and programs

3.8 Achieve universal health coverage (UHC), including financial risk protection, access to quality essential health care services, and access to safe, effective, quality, and affordable essential medicines and vaccines for all

3.9 By 2030 substantially reduce the number of deaths and illnesses from hazardous chemicals and air, water, and soil pollution and contamination
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3.a. Strengthen implementation of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control in all countries as appropriate

3.b. Support research and development of vaccines and medicines for the communicable and non-communicable diseases that primarily affect developing countries, provide access to affordable essential medicines and vaccines, in accordance with the Doha Declaration which affirms the right of developing countries to use to the full the provisions in the TRIPS agreement regarding flexibilities to protect public health and, in particular, provide access to medicines for all

3.c. Increase substantially health financing and the recruitment, development and training and retention of the health workforce in developing countries, especially in LDCs and SIDS

3.d. Strengthen the capacity of all countries, particularly developing countries, for early warning, risk reduction, and management of national and global health risks

expand_less SDG4: Quality Education (universities)
SDG4: Quality Education (universities)+Image

SDG4: Quality Education (universities)

Sustainability Tracking Assessment Rating System STARS+image
Institutional Control
Research | community
2 2
1 1
National Union of Students (United Kingdom)+Image
Responsible Futures Accreditation
Research | designer assessed
1 1
Sustainability Tracking Assessment Rating System STARS+image
Number of Degree-seeking Students
Research | community
1 1
Sustainability Tracking Assessment Rating System STARS+image
Diversity and Equity Post
Research | community
1 1
1 1
Wolverines+image
Undergraduate Student Loan Debt
Research | community assessed
0 0
+Overview

ENSURE INCLUSIVE AND EQUITABLE QUALITY EDUCATION AND PROMOTE LIFELONG LEARNING OPPORTUNITIES FOR ALL

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4.1 By 2030, ensure that all girls and boys complete free, equitable and quality primary and secondary education leading to relevant and effective learning outcomes

4.2 By 2030, ensure that all girls and boys have access to quality early childhood development, care and pre-primary education so that they are ready for primary education

4.3 By 2030, ensure equal access for all women and men to affordable quality technical, vocational and tertiary education, including university

4.4 By 2030, substantially increase the number of youth and adults who have relevant skills, including technical and vocational skills, for employment, decent jobs and entrepreneurship

4.5 By 2030, eliminate gender disparities in education and ensure equal access to all levels of education and vocational training for the vulnerable, including persons with disabilities, indigenous peoples, and children in vulnerable situations

4.6 By 2030, ensure that all youth and a substantial proportion of adults, both men and men, achieve literacy and numeracy

4.7 By 2030, ensure all learners acquire knowledge and skills needed to promote sustainable development, including among others through education for sustainable development and sustainable lifestyles, human rights, gender equality, promotion of a culture of peace and non-violence, global citizenship, and appreciation of cultural diversity and of cultures contribution to sustainable development

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4.a Build and upgrade education facilities that are child, disability and gender sensitive and provide safe, non-violent, inclusive and effective learning environments for all

4.b By 2020, substantially expand globally the number of scholarships for developing countries in particular least developed countries, small island developing States and African countries for enrolment in higher education, including vocational training, and communications technology, technical, engineering and scientific programs in developed countries and other developing countries

4.c By 2030, substantially increase the supply of qualified teachers, including through international cooperation for teacher training in developing countries, especially least developed countries, small island developing States

expand_less SDG5: Gender Equality (universities)
SDG5: Gender Equality (universities)+Image

SDG5: Gender Equality (universities)

Sustainability Tracking Assessment Rating System STARS+image
Diversity and Equity Post
Research | community
1 1
1 1
+Overview

ACHIEVE GENDER EQUALITY AND EMPOWER ALL WOMEN AND GIRLS

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5.1 End all forms of discrimination against all women and girls everywhere

5.2 Eliminate all forms of violence against all women and girls in public and private spheres, including trafficking and sexual and other types of exploitation

5.3 Eliminate all harmful practices, such as child, early and forced marriage and female genital mutilations

5.4 Recognize and value unpaid care and domestic work through the provision of public services, infrastructure and social protection policies, and the promotion of shared responsibility within the household and the family as nationally appropriate

5.5 Ensure women’s full and effective participation and equal opportunities for leadership at all levels of decision-making in political, economic, and public life

5.6 Ensure universal access to sexual and reproductive health and reproductive rights as agreed in accordance with the Program of Action of the ICPD and the Beijing Platform for Action and the outcome documents of their review conferences

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5.a. Undertake reforms to give women equal rights to economic resources, as well as access to ownership and control over land and other forms of property, financial services, inheritance, and natural resources in accordance with national laws

5.b. Enhance the use of enabling technologies, in particular ICT, to promote women’s empowerment

5.c. Adopt and strengthen sound policies and enforceable legislation for the promotion of gender equality and the empowerment of all women and girls at all levels

expand_less SDG6: Clean Water and Sanitation (universities)
SDG6: Clean Water and Sanitation (universities)+Image

SDG6: Clean Water and Sanitation (universities)

Higher Education Statistics Agency HESA+image
Total water consumption (m3)
Research | community
9 10
9 10
Higher Education Statistics Agency HESA+image
9 10
9 10
9 10
Higher Education Statistics Agency HESA+image
Total volume of wastewater (m3)
Research | community
9 10
+Overview

ENSURE AVAILABILITY AND SUSTAINABLE MANAGEMENT OF WATER AND SANITATION FOR ALL

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6.1 By 2030, achieve universal and equitable access to safe and affordable drinking water for all

6.2 By 2030, achieve access to adequate and equitable sanitation and hygiene for all, and end open defecation, paying special attention to the needs of women and girls and those in vulnerable situations

6.3 By 2030, improve water quality by reducing pollution, eliminating dumping and minimizing release of hazardous chemicals and materials, halving the proportion of untreated wastewater and substantially increasing recycling and safe reuse globally

6.4 By 2030, substantially increase water-use efficiency across all sectors and ensure sustainable withdrawals and supply of freshwater to address water scarcity, and substantially reduce the number of people suffering from water scarcity

6.5 By 2030, implement integrated water resources management at all levels, including through transboundary cooperation as appropriate

6.6 By 2020, protect and restore water-related ecosystems, including mountains, forests, wetlands, rivers, aquifers and lakes

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6.a By 2030, expand international cooperation and capacity-building support to developing countries in water and sanitation related activities and programs, including water harvesting, desalination, water efficiency, wastewater treatment, recycling and reuse technologies

6.b Support and strengthen the participation of local communities in improving water and sanitation management

expand_less SDG7: Affordable and Clean Energy (universities)
SDG7: Affordable and Clean Energy (universities)+Image

SDG7: Affordable and Clean Energy (universities)

9 10
9 10
9 10
Higher Education Statistics Agency HESA+image
Energy consumption biofuels (kWh)
Research | community
9 10
Higher Education Statistics Agency HESA+image
Energy consumption biomass (kWh)
Research | community
9 10
9 10
9 10
9 10
2 2
Sustainability Tracking Assessment Rating System STARS+image
Electricity from Wind (%)
Research | community
2 2
Sustainability Tracking Assessment Rating System STARS+image
IECC Climate Region
Research | community
1 1
Sustainability Tracking Assessment Rating System STARS+image
Electricity from Geothermal (%)
Research | community
1 1
Sustainability Tracking Assessment Rating System STARS+image
Electricity from Hydro (%)
Research | community
1 1
Sustainability Tracking Assessment Rating System STARS+image
Electricity from Natural Gas (%)
Research | community
1 1
Sustainability Tracking Assessment Rating System STARS+image
Electricity from Nuclear (%)
Research | community
1 1
Sustainability Tracking Assessment Rating System STARS+image
1 1
Sustainability Tracking Assessment Rating System STARS+image
Electricity from Biomass (%)
Research | community assessed
1 1
+Overview

ENSURE ACCESS TO AFFORDABLE, RELIABLE, SUSTAINABLE AND MODERN ENERGY FOR ALL

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7.1 By 2030, ensure universal access to affordable, reliable, and modern energy services

7.2 Increase substantially the share of renewable energy in the global energy mix by 2030

7.3 Double the global rate of improvement in energy efficiency by 2030
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7.a By 2030, enhance international cooperation to facilitate access to clean energy research and technologies, including renewable energy, energy efficiency, and advanced and cleaner fossil fuel technologies, and promote investment in energy infrastructure and clean energy technologies

7.b By 2030, expand infrastructure and upgrade technology for supplying modern and sustainable energy services for all in developing countries, particularly LDCs and SIDS

expand_less SDG8: Decent Work and Economic Growth (universities)
SDG8: Decent Work and Economic Growth (universities)+Image

SDG8: Decent Work and Economic Growth (universities)

Sustainability Tracking Assessment Rating System STARS+image
Total Value of Investment Pool
Research | community
1 1
Sustainability Tracking Assessment Rating System STARS+image
1 1
+Overview

PROMOTE SUSTAINED, INCLUSIVE AND SUSTAINABLE ECONOMIC GROWTH, FULL AND PRODUCTIVE EMPLOYMENT AND DECENT WORK FOR ALL

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8.1 Sustain per capita economic growth in accordance with national circumstances, and in particular at least 7% per annum GDP growth in the least-developed countries

8.2 Achieve higher levels of productivity of economies through diversification, technological upgrading and innovation, including through a focus on high value added and labor-intensive sectors

8.3 Promote development-oriented policies that support productive activities, decent job creation, entrepreneurship, creativity and innovation, and encourage formalization and growth of micro-, small- and medium-sized enterprises including through access to financial services

8.4 Improve progressively through 2030 global resource efficiency in consumption and production, and endeavor to decouple economic growth from environmental degradation in accordance with the 10-year framework of programs on sustainable consumption and production with developed countries taking the lead

8.5 By 2030, achieve full and productive employment and decent work for all women and men, including for young people and persons with disabilities, and equal pay for work of equal value

8.6 By 2020, substantially reduce the proportion of youth not in employment, education or training

8.7 Take immediate and effective measures to secure the prohibition and elimination of the worst forms of child labor, eradicate forced labor, and by 2025 end child labor in all its forms including recruitment and use of child soldiers

8.8 Protect labor rights and promote safe and secure working environments of all workers, including migrant workers, particularly women migrants, and those in precarious employment

8.9 By 2030, devise and implement policies to promote sustainable tourism which creates jobs, promotes local culture and products

8.10 strengthen the capacity of domestic financial institutions to encourage and to expand access to banking, insurance and financial services for all
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8.a. Increase Aid for Trade support for developing countries, particularly LDCs, including through the Enhanced Integrated Framework for LDCs

8.b. By 2020, develop and operationalize a global strategy for youth employment and implement the ILO Global Jobs Pact

expand_less SDG9: Industry, Innovation and Infrastructure (universities)
SDG9: Industry, Innovation and Infrastructure (universities)+Image

SDG9: Industry, Innovation and Infrastructure (universities)

Geenmetric
Research | community assessed
1 1
+Overview

BUILD RESILIENT INFRASTRUCTURE, PROMOTE INCLUSIVE AND SUSTAINABLE INDUSTRIALIZATION AND FOSTER INNOVATION

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9.1 Develop quality, reliable, sustainable and resilient infrastructure, including regional and trans-border infrastructure, to support economic development and human well-being, with a focus on affordable and equitable access for all

9.2 Promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization, and by 2030 raise significantly industry’s share of employment and GDP in line with national circumstances, and double its share in LDCs

9.3 Increase the access of small-scale industrial and other enterprises, particularly in developing countries, to financial services including affordable credit and their integration into value chains and markets

9.4 By 2030, upgrade infrastructure and retrofit industries to make them sustainable, with increased resource use efficiency and greater adoption of clean and environmentally sound technologies and industrial processes, all countries taking action in accordance with their respective capabilities

9.5 Enhance scientific research, upgrade the technological capabilities of industrial sectors in all countries, particularly developing countries, including by 2030 encouraging innovation and increasing the number of R&D workers per one million people by x% and public and private R&D spending
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9.a Facilitate sustainable and resilient infrastructure development in developing countries through enhanced financial, technological and technical support to African countries, LDCs, LLDCs and SIDS

9.b Support domestic technology development, research and innovation in developing countries including by ensuring a conducive policy environment for inter alia industrial diversification and value addition to commodities

9.c Significantly increase access to ICT and strive to provide universal and affordable access to internet in LDCs by 2020

expand_less SDG10: Reduced Inequalities (universities)
SDG10: Reduced Inequalities (universities)+Image

SDG10: Reduced Inequalities (universities)

Sustainability Tracking Assessment Rating System STARS+image
Diversity and Equity Post
Research | community
1 1
1 1
Wolverines+image
Undergraduate Student Loan Debt
Research | community assessed
0 0
+Overview

REDUCE INEQUALITY WITHIN AND AMONG COUNTRIES

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10.1 By 2030, progressively achieve and sustain income growth of the bottom 40% of the population at a rate higher than the national average

10.2 By 2030, empower and promote the social, economic and political inclusion of all irrespective of age, sex, disability, race, ethnicity, origin, religion or economic or other status

10.3 Ensure equal opportunity and reduce inequalities of outcome, including through eliminating discriminatory laws, policies and practices and promoting appropriate legislation, policies and actions in this regard

10.4 Adopt policies especially fiscal, wage, and social protection policies and progressively achieve greater equality

10.5 Improve regulation and monitoring of global financial markets and institutions and strengthen implementation of such regulations

10.6 Ensure enhanced representation and voice of developing countries in decision making in global international economic and financial institutions in order to deliver more effective, credible, accountable and legitimate institutions

10.7 Facilitate orderly, safe, regular and responsible migration and mobility of people, including through implementation of planned and well-managed migration policies

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10.a. Implement the principle of special and differential treatment for developing countries, in particular least developed countries, in accordance with WTO agreements

10.b. Encourage ODA and financial flows, including foreign direct investment, to states where the need is greatest, in particular LDCs, African countries, SIDS, and LLDCs, in accordance with their national plans and programs

10.c. By 2030, reduce to less than 3% the transaction costs of migrant remittances and eliminate remittance corridors with costs higher than 5%

expand_less SDG11: Sustainable Cities and Communities (universities)
SDG11: Sustainable Cities and Communities (universities)+Image

SDG11: Sustainable Cities and Communities (universities)

1 1
1 1
+Overview

MAKE CITIES AND HUMAN SETTLEMENTS INCLUSIVE, SAFE, RESILIENT AND SUSTAINABLE

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11.1 By 2030, ensure access for all to adequate, safe and affordable housing and basic services, and upgrade slums

11.2 By 2030, provide access to safe, affordable, accessible and sustainable transport systems for all, improving road safety, notably by expanding public transport, with special attention to the needs of those in vulnerable situations, women, children, persons with disabilities and older persons

11.3 By 2030 enhance inclusive and sustainable urbanization and capacities for participatory, integrated and sustainable human settlement planning and management in all countries

11.4 Strengthen efforts to protect and safeguard the world’s cultural and natural heritage

11.5 By 2030, significantly reduce the number of deaths and the number of affected people and decrease by y% the economic losses relative to GDP caused by disasters, including water-related disasters, with the focus on protecting the poor and people in vulnerable situations

11.6 By 2030, reduce the adverse per capita environmental impact of cities, including by paying special attention to air quality, municipal and other waste management

11.7 By 2030, provide universal access to safe, inclusive and accessible, green and public spaces, particularly for women and children, older persons and persons with disabilities

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11.a Support positive economic, social and environmental links between urban, peri-urban and rural areas by strengthening national and regional development planning

11.b By 2020, increase by x% the number of cities and human settlements adopting and implementing integrated policies and plans towards inclusion, resource efficiency, mitigation and adaptation to climate change, resilience to disasters, develop and implement in line with the forthcoming Hyogo Framework holistic disaster risk management at all levels

11.c Support least developed countries, including through financial and technical assistance, for sustainable and resilient buildings utilizing local materials

expand_less SDG12: Responsible Consumption and Production (universities)
SDG12: Responsible Consumption and Production (universities)+Image

SDG12: Responsible Consumption and Production (universities)

10 11
Higher Education Statistics Agency HESA+image
Total waste mass other (tonnes)
Research | community
9 10
9 10
9 10
9 10
9 10
9 10
9 10
9 10
9 10
9 10
9 10
9 10
9 10
9 10
Higher Education Statistics Agency HESA+image
Total volume of wastewater (m3)
Research | community
9 10
9 10
9 10
Higher Education Statistics Agency HESA+image
Energy consumption biofuels (kWh)
Research | community
9 10
9 10
9 10
Higher Education Statistics Agency HESA+image
Total water consumption (m3)
Research | community
9 10
9 10
9 10
9 10
Higher Education Statistics Agency HESA+image
Energy consumption fuel oil (kWh)
Research | community
9 10
9 10
Higher Education Statistics Agency HESA+image
9 10
9 10
Higher Education Statistics Agency HESA+image
Total waste mass (tonnes)
Research | community
9 10
Higher Education Statistics Agency HESA+image
Energy consumption gas oil (kWh)
Research | community
9 10
Higher Education Statistics Agency HESA+image
Energy consumption biomass (kWh)
Research | community
9 10
9 10
Higher Education Statistics Agency HESA+image
9 10
9 10
9 10
9 10
9 10
9 10
9 10
9 10
9 10
9 10
9 10
9 10
9 10
Higher Education Statistics Agency HESA+image
9 10
8 9
8 9
8 9
8 9
8 9
8 9
8 9
8 9
8 9
8 9
8 9
8 9
8 9
6 7
6 7
6 7
6 7
6 7
6 7
6 7
1 1
Sustainability Tracking Assessment Rating System STARS+image
Vegan Dining Option
Research | community
1 1
1 1
1 1
1 1
1 1
1 1
+Overview

ENSURE SUSTAINABLE CONSUMPTION AND PRODUCTION PATTERNS

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12.1 Implement the 10-Year Framework of Programs on sustainable consumption and production (10YFP), all countries taking action, with developed countries taking the lead, taking into account the development and capabilities of developing countries

12.2 By 2030, achieve sustainable management and efficient use of natural resources

12.3 By 2030, halve per capita global food waste at the retail and consumer level, and reduce food losses along production and supply chains including post-harvest losses

12.4 By 2020, achieve environmentally sound management of chemicals and all wastes throughout their life cycle in accordance with agreed international frameworks and significantly reduce their release to air, water and soil to minimize their adverse impacts on human health and the environment

12.5 By 2030, substantially reduce waste generation through prevention, reduction, recycling, and reuse

12.6 Encourage companies, especially large and trans-national companies, to adopt sustainable practices and to integrate sustainability information into their reporting cycle

12.7 Promote public procurement practices that are sustainable in accordance with national policies and priorities

12.8 By 2030, ensure that people everywhere have the relevant information and awareness for sustainable development and lifestyles in harmony with nature

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12.a Support developing countries to strengthen their scientific and technological capacities to move towards more sustainable patterns of consumption and production

12.b Develop and implement tools to monitor sustainable development impacts for sustainable tourism which creates jobs, promotes local culture and products

12.c Rationalize inefficient fossil fuel subsidies that encourage wasteful consumption by removing market distortions, in accordance with national circumstances, including by restructuring taxation and phasing out those harmful subsidies, where they exist, to reflect their environmental impacts, taking fully into account the specific needs and conditions of developing countries and minimizing the possible adverse impacts on their development in a manner that protects the poor and the affected communities

expand_less SDG13: Climate Action (universities)
SDG13: Climate Action (universities)+Image

SDG13: Climate Action (universities)